Insights on important topics

Differences beetween FLA and FLC
THE DOUBT: In North America, each motor has two current values: - Full-Load Ampere (FLA) - Full-Load Current (FLC) What are the differences and when are the...
UL and CSA Conformity
The three legs of North America product Safety
THE DOUBT: is the knowledge of the NEC, or NFPA 70, important when assessing the electrical conformity of my machinery for export to USA? CONSIDERATION 1: When...
UL and CSA Conformity
"Proven in use" and "Prior use"
THE DOUBT: What is the difference between a Proven in Use and a Prior Use Device?   Actually the two terms are quite similar and it is very easy to mix t...
Process Safety
Safety Contactors and their usage
THE DOUBT: What is a safety contactor and is their usage compulsory in a Safety related control circuit? CONSIDERATION 1: There are 2 main types of contac...
Functional Safety
The difference between Route 1H and Route 2H
THE DOUBT: What is the difference between Route 1H and Route 2H? Let’s try to place the subject into the main picture. When you hear about Route 1H and 2...
Process Safety
Reliability data for components used in Safety Systems
THE DOUBT: What are the main reliability data for components used in Safety Applications? When you deal with components used in Safety Critical Systems yo...
Functional Safety
Well-tried components
THE DOUBT Why are well-tried components important in Machinery Safety?   CONSIDERATIONS The concept is defined in both ISO 13849-1 and IEC 62061. Those...
Functional Safety
The Safe Failure Fraction (SFF): what is it and how to use it.
A Safe failure is the failure of an element, inside a component that plays a part in implementing a safety function, that results in a spurious operation of the safety function. That means, it places the machine into a safe state (it generates and em...
Process Safety
What standards to follow in USA and Canada?
THE DOUBT: If you are a machinery manufacturer, you may be lost by the so many standards mentioned when discussing export to USA or Canada. The question yo...
UL and CSA Conformity
Assembly of Machinery
THE DOUBT: Shall a group of machinery be CE Marked? When can I say a certain group of machinery constitute an Assembly of Machinery and therefore, it must be CE...
Machinery Directive
The importance of layout analysis in risk assessment
EN ISO 11161 is the reference standard regarding the safety of the Integrated Machinery System (which henceforth in the article will be simply called IMS). The...
Machinery Safety

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