Insights on important topics

Differences beetween FLA and FLC
THE DOUBT: In North America, each motor has two current values: - Full-Load Ampere (FLA) - Full-Load Current (FLC) What are the differences and when are the...
UL and CSA Conformity
Spare capacity in Industrial Control Panels
The Doubt: In an Industrial Control Panel, is it required to leave a certain Spare capacity for “future” development?
Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Mitigation
IEC 61508 (all parts)
This is the “mother” of all Functional safety standards used in several industries worldwide. It was written in order to allow the use of Electronic components in safety critical systems.
Functional Safety
Example of PFDAvg Calculation
We want to calculate the PFDavg for a low demand mode Safety Loop involving a pressure transmitter, an analogue barrier, two electronic safety modules and the STO (Safe Torque off) of a Variable Speed Drive.
Process Safety
The Modular Approach
The doubt: in order to CE mark my distribution panel, shall I do EMC tests?
Machinery Safety
Is IEC 61439-1 applicable to Industrial Control Panels?
The doubt: in order to CE mark an Industrial Control Panel, shall I follow the prescriptions given by IEC 61439-1?
Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Mitigation
Double Bonding
THE DOUBT We sometimes notice electric motors having a double bonding. Is it mandatory?
Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Mitigation
The Seven Golden Rules for a successful Risk assessment and Risk Reduction
There are about 700 harmonised standards to the machinery directive. Few of them, like ISO 12100, are about the risk assessment; the majority are about how to reduce the risk.
Machinery Safety
Six key symbols for Electrical Safety
Electrical Safety is well standardized, in the sense that there are may technical documents written on the Subject, normally by the  International Electrotechnical Commission, or IEC.
Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Mitigation
Contactors used in Safety Applications
There are three types of contactors used in Safety-related control Systems:
Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Mitigation
ISO 13849-1
It is one of the two standards used in machinery and, at least in Europe, it is the most used of the two, the other being IEC 62061. It is divided in two parts:
Functional Safety