RA: Risk Assessement and Risk Reduction

The main Risk reduction technical standards harmonized to the Machinery Directive

Last edit: 15/09/2023

TARGET GROUP: electrical and mechanical department.

SCOPE: The scope of the course is the knowledge of the main "mechanical" standards or EN ISO and risk reduction standards, harmonized with the Machinery Directive. Participation in international work groups of some of the main harmonized standards allows GT Engineering to present not only a precise knowledge of the current legislation but also to inform on which are the directions in which it is evolving. 

CONTENT: The series of machinery safety standards devise and propose ways to eliminate or minimize risks of the potential hazards associated with the required tasks. This can be accomplished either by an appropriate machine design or by restricting personnel or other individuals’ access to hazard zones, and by devising work procedures to minimize personnel exposure to hazardous situations. Theses standards recognize that zero risk does not exist and cannot be attained. However, a good faith approach to risk assessment and risk reduction should achieve an acceptable risk level. 

EN ISO 12100 is the reference standard for the Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction of Machineries. The knowledge of this Standard is key in order to make Machines and Installations safe. It is also important for the preparation of the Technical File required by the Machinery Directive.

The main subjects treated are:

  • General introduction to harmonized technical standards and their role in the presumption of conformity with the Machinery Directive. Type A, B and C standards
  • EN ISO 13857: Safety of machinery – Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and lower limbs
  • EN ISO 14122. Safety of machinery – Permanent means of access to machinery.
  • EN ISO 14120: Safety of machinery – Guards – GGeneral requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards.
  • EN 349: Safety of machinery – Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human bodyEN ISO 14119: Safety of machinery – Interlocking devices associated with guards – Design and selection principles
  • EN ISO 4414: Pneumatics – General rules and safety requirements for systems and their components.EN 415-10: Safety of packaging machines. Part 10: general requirements
  • EN ISO 13855: Safety of machinery – PoPositioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body
  • EN ISO 13850: Emergency stop
  • EN ISO 14118: Prevention of unexpected machine start-up


DURATION: 16 hours.


GT Engineering is a member of ISO TC 199, an international technical committee that deals with the development of type A (ISO 12100) and B standards harmonized with the Machinery Directive, including ISO 14119 and ISO 13849, both under review.
The company is also a member of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) technical committees B11.0 and B11.26, the first section deals with the risk analysis methodology and the second deals with risk reduction. Both standards are being revised and will be published by the end of 2019.